Tagalog Lessons (Lesson 3): “Ang”, “Si”, “Ano”, “Sino” and Focus Personal Pronouns.

In my previous post about the Tagalog language I mentioned that in a sentence like for example “I threw the garbage in the garbage can” I could highlight 3 parts:

  • Who did the action: nagtapon ako ng basura sa basurahan” (“I am the one who threw the garbage in the can”)
  • What was thrown: itinapon ko ang basura sa basurahan” (“the garbage is what I threw in the can”)
  • Where it was thrown: “tinapunan ko ng basura ang basurahan” (“the can is where I threw the garbage”)

So, the “article” (or more correctly “the marker”) that I am using before the noun that is in focus is ang which basically means the.

Examples:

The man=ang tao

The cat=ang pusa

And so on

If I wanted to use a proper name instead of a common noun I would have to use si instead of ang:

For example if I wanted to say: “Eduardo threw the garbage….” I would have to say: “si Eduardo ang nagtapon ng basura…”

If I were asking: “who threw the garbage….?” I would have to use sino” (meaning who when the doer of the action is in focus)

If I am asking about the object then I have to use “ano” (“what”) like: “ano ang itinapon mo…?” (“What did you throw….?”) Or “ano ang tinapunan mo ng basura?” (What is the place where you threw….?”).

When the doer of the action is in focus the personal pronoun in the example above is ako meaning I (I am the one who threw the garbage).

If, instead of I, I wanted to say you, he (or she), we, You, they, I would have to use the following personal pronouns:

Ikaw=you

Siya= he or she

Kami or Tayo=we

Kayo=You

Sila=they

So, to wrap it up, in the focus part of the sentence you use:

  • Ako, ikaw, siya, kami or tayo, kayo, sila as personal pronouns
  • Ang as marker (basically article)
  • Si before proper nouns
  • Ano to ask “what”
  • Sino to ask “who”.

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