As I’ve said in my previous posts, in the part of the sentence that is the focus of the sentence, you have to use the marker ang before a noun, the marker si before a proper name, the personal pronouns ako, ikaw, siya, kami or tayo, kayo, sila.
You also need to use mag and um verbs (and other kinds of verbs that I will be talking about in the near future).
What about the part of the sentence that is not in focus?
The best way to understand it is through some examples.
Going back to my example in my previous posts, if I say something like: “ako ang nagtapon ng basura sa basurahan” I am using the ako, the ang and a mag verb in the focus portion of the sentence. In the part where I talk about the object (basura), since the object is not in focus I am using ng instead of ang.
So ng is the marker you use in this case.
If I wanted to say that the garbage is what Eduardo threw, thereby shifting the focus from the actor to the object I would have to say: “itinapon ni Eduardo ang basura….”.
So, in the part of the sentence that is not in focus, you use ni instead of si or ng instead of ang.
What about the personal pronouns?
Instead of ako, ikaw etc. you need to use ko, mo, niya, namin/natin, ninyo, nila.
As for the verbs, they generally either begin with i- (like itinapon….) or end with -in.
Let me give you a couple of examples:
- Itinapon ko ang basura…(past)
- Itinatapon ko ang basura…(present)
- Itatapon ko ang basura….(future)
So, the root word is tapon and the affix is i- and you form past, present and future by following the rule that you can get from the example above.
Another affix for the object focus verb is -in.
Another example will shed light on how to use this affix to form past, present and future.
- Past= binasa ko ang aklat (book)
- Present=binabasa ko ang aklat
- Future=babasahin ko ang aklat